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Code of Ethics

Introduction


The role of individual members of the Korean Psychological Association (hereinafter referred to as the psychologists) is to expand their knowledge and to provide the knowledge and ability for the well-being of individuals and society through professional and scientific activities. This Korean Psychological Associations (KPAs) Code of Ethics (hereinafter, the Code of Ethics) defines the principles and standards that should be established in the course of performing these roles of psychologists.
It is psychologists duty to always endeavor to act with the utmost ethical responsibilities. Psychologists have an obligation to recognize the scope of their knowledge and ability on the basis of the professional and scientific activities as a psychologist, and have a duty to try to escape from the personal, social, economic, and political influence that may make them exploit or abuse their knowledge and ability.
Psychologist that act contrary to the Code of Ethics may be deprived of membership, or undergo suspension of membership, suspension of qualification (license), and loss of qualification (license) in accordance with the procedures set forth in the bylaws of the Korean Psychological Association. In addition, this measure may be notified to other organizations or individuals.

 

 

Chapter 1 Guidelines for the Implementation of the Code of Ethics
 

Article 1 Pledge of Code of Ethics
The Code of Ethics must be pledged to join as a member in the Korean Psychological Association. Those who were already members at the time when this Code of Ethics took effect are deemed to have pledged to this Code of Ethics.

 

Article 2 Conflicts between the Code of Ethics and the current Laws
If current laws limit the Code of Ethics, the former shall take priority over the latter. If the Code of Ethics set up more strict standards than the requirements of current law, psychologists shall observe the Code of Ethics.

 

Article 3 Conflicts of the Code of Ethics with the organization needs
If institutions that psychologists are affiliated with require them to contradict the Code of Ethics, psychologists inform the institutions that they pledged to abide by the Code of Ethics, and shall endeavor to resolve the conflict in a manner that complies with the Code of Ethics. In addition, they inform the KPA and the Sanctions Committee of the institutions requirements that contradict the Code of Ethics to seek advices, and the Committee should offer appropriate advice.

 

Article 4 Report of Ethics Violations
If psychologists are aware of other psychologists problems that violate the Code of Ethics, they shall attempt to resolve the problems by helping the psychologists in question become aware of their problems. If the problems remain unresolved, or if the problems are clear violations of the Code of Ethics and the informal approaches are not appropriate for solution, then the matters should be reported to the relevant sub-associations or the Sanctions and Ethics Committee of KPA. The Sanction and Ethics Committee of the Korean Psychological Association shall not reveal the identity of psychologist who informed the problems.

 

Article 5 Cooperating with the Sanctions and Ethics Committee
The psychologists reported for violation of the Code of Ethics shall cooperate with the investigations conducted by the sub-associations of KPA, the Sanctions and Ethics Committee. It is in itself a violation of the Code of Ethics to not cooperate with the ethics investigations.

 

Article 6 Guaranteeing the Opportunities to Explain Themselves
Psychologists who have been reported for a violation of the Code of Ethics should be given sufficient opportunities to explain themselves.

 

Article 7 Confidentiality of the Subjects of Sanction
The members of Ethics Committee affiliated with the sub-associations of KPA and the members of Sanctions and Ethics Committee of KPA should not disclose the identity of the psychologists who violated the Code of Ethics until the KPA Board of Directors make a decision to take disciplinary actions.

 

Article 8 Amendments of the Code of Ethics
The procedure of amending the Code of Ethics is consistent with the amendment procedures of the KPA bylaws. If the Code of Ethics were amended, it shall be deemed for the KPA-affiliated psychologists to have automatically pledged to the new Code of Ethics without further pledge insofar as they have already pledged the existing Code before the amendment.

 

 

Chapter 2 General Ethics
 

Article 9 Basic Obligations of Psychologists
1. Psychologists shall endeavor to improve mental and physical health of human beings.
2. Psychologists shall strive for the development of individuals and society.
3. Psychologists shall carry out tasks truthfully, honestly and accurately in the fields of academic research, teaching, assessment, and treatment.
4. Psychologists should be aware that their work could have an impact on society and humanity and, hence, perform their responsibilities as experts based on trust.
5. Psychologists shall use their best efforts to ensure that the results of their psychological research and service could be provided fairly to everyone who need them.
6. Psychologists respect the dignity and value of the human, as well as individuals rights to privacy and self-determination.

 

Article 10 Expertise
1. Psychologists effort should be continued in order to develop and maintain their skills and expertise.
2. Psychologists who are engaged in research and education shall pursue scientific knowledge in their professional fields, and should constantly strive to deliver it accurately.
3. Psychologists engaged in assessment and psychotherapy services should provide services within the scope of the specialized area of research and professional experience in which they received education, training, and supervision. If there is an emergency situation where urgent intervention is required but qualified psychologists are not available for consultation, a psychologist that is not qualified can provide a service, but the service shall terminate the moment a qualified psychologist is available to provide the service.
4. Psychologists who wish to provide services that require the knowledge and experience outside of their area of expertise should receive related education, training, and supervision.

 

Article 11 Delegations of Tasks
When psychologists delegate tasks to the employees, trainees who are under their supervision, or teaching or research assistants, they should take the following measures.
1. Psychologists shall avoid delegating tasks to a person that has multiple relationships with the prospective clients/patients and is, thus, likely to exploit them or lose objectivity. (Refer to Article14, Multiple Relationships.)
2. Psychologists shall delegate the work to the people who have are considered to be competent in performing the work independently or under the supervision based on their education, training and experience.
3. Psychologists shall ensure that the delegated competently perform their duties.

 

Article 12 Work-related Human Relationships
1. Psychologists shall respect fellow psychologists and shall not make a criticism that is not based on the facts in regard to the work-related activities of the fellow psychologists.
2. Psychologists will work collaboratively with professionals in other fields of expertise while maintaining integrity and patience.
3. Psychologists shall provide the necessary knowledge and experience to students or trainees and not limit their responsibilities to tasks of dependent or subordinate nature only. (Refer to Article 13, Exploitative Relationships.)
4. Psychologists shall respect the characters of the participants during the course of research and not put them at risk and should take measures to ensure their safety and wellbeing. (Refer to Article 23, Responsibilities of the Research Participants.)
5. Psychologists shall form a trusting relationship with the client/patient and shall not have multiple or exploitative relationships with them. (Refer to Article 13, Exploitative Relationships, Article 14, Multiple Relationships.)

 

Article 13 Exploitative Relationships
Psychologists shall not exploit clients/patients, students, trainees, research participants, and employees whom they provide supervision and assessment to or exercise other forms of authority over, in material, physical, or occupational aspects.

 

Article 14 Multiple Relationships
1. Being in multiple relationships means that psychologists are in a professional relationship with someone, while simultaneously in another role with that same person. This can be a risk factor to psychologists when they try to conduct their tasks in fair, objective, and efficient manner. Multiple relationships can also cause potentially harm to or exploitation of their counterparts. Hence, when multiple relationships occur psychologists should be careful.

2. Psychologists must be aware of and avoid the following multiple relationships that are risk factors to the performance of their tasks or can cause harm to the other party.
  (1) Being in teacher-student relationship and simultaneously in intimate personal relationship (Refer to Article 44, Sexual Relations with Students and Trainees).
  (2) Being in teacher-student relationship and simultaneously in therapist? client/patient relationship (Article 43 Mandating Individual Therapy and Group Therapy)
  (3) Belonging to the same institutions as teacher-student relationship, employment relationship, or hierarchical relationship of rank or position, and simultaneously being in direct financial relationship of therapist-client/patient in which the latter must pay the costs of supervision or treatment to the former.
  (4) Being in therapist - client/patient relationship and simultaneously in intimate personal relationship (Article 60, Sexual Intimacies with Clients/Patients)
  (5) Being in intimate personal relationships with the family member, close relatives or guardians of clients/patients while working as a therapist.
  (6) Other multiple relationships that are likely to cause harm to or risk exploitations of the person that the psychologists are in professional relationship with, or have the potential to impair the fairness of task performance.
3. Multiple relationships that do not harm to the other parties or are not risk factors to the task performance of psychologists are not unethical.
4. If psychologists find that they have formed potentially harmful multiple relationships due to unforeseen factors, they take proper measures and comply with the Code of Ethics, taking into account the interests of the people who would be affected.

 

Article 15 Conflict of Interest
In regard to personal, scientific, professional, legal, financial, or other interests or relationships, psychologists shall refrain from performing professional roles in the following cases.
  (1) Cases where the efficiency, objectivity, and competence are undermined in performing their roles as psychologists.
  (2) Cases where the individuals or organizations with whom the professional relationships exist may be harmed exploited.

 

Article 16 Sexual Harassment
The Psychologists do not engage in sexual harassment. Sexual harassment includes sexual temptations, physical contacts, or verbal and non-verbal actions that have sexual connotations in their nature that occurs in the course of performing their activities and roles as psychologists.

 

Article 17 Confidentiality and Disclosure
1. Psychologists have a primary obligation to protect confidential information that they learned in the course of the research, teaching, assessment and treatment. The obligations of confidentiality should extend to the family members and colleagues of the person who revealed that confidential information. However, exceptions can be made for the psychologists and doctors who are involved in the counseling and treatment and the assistants who assisted them in the process, or the individuals to whom the clients/patients permitted the disclosure of confidential information. However, even in such cases, psychologists should strive to minimize the disclosure of real names.
2. The psychologist can disclose confidential information with the consent from the organizational clients, individual clients/patients or people who are legally authorized on behalf of, the clients/patients. This should be limited to professional research purposes and even in those cases, real names should not be revealed.
3. Confidential information can be exposed in a minimum level without the consent of the individuals, if mandated by law, or approved by law for the justifiable purposes as follows:
  (1) To provide necessary professional services
  (2) To obtain appropriate professional advice.
  (3) To protect clients/patients, psychologists, or other people from injury.
  (4) To collect fees for the services provided from clients/patients

 

Article 18 Documentation of the Tasks and Preservation and Transfer of Documents
1. Psychologist shall document all oral consent, permission, and approvals received by individuals in the course of research, teaching, assessment, and treatment.
2. Psychologist shall document and record their professional, scientific work for the following purposes:
  (1) To help future research, education, assessment and treatment by experts including themselves.
  (2) To replicate and verify research design and analysis.
  (3) To meet the institutional demands.
  (4) To ensure the accuracy of billing and payment.
  (5) To ensure compliance with laws
3. Psychologists should preserve and store documented records and data, and transfer all records and data when or if they resign from the position or practice.

 

Article 19 Public Statements
1. Public statements include paid or free advertisements, product quality assurances, research grant applications, certification applications, various types of applications, brochures, printed matter, directory listings, personal resumes or curricula vitae, comments and reviews for mass media use, statements in legal proceedings, lectures, oral presentations and publications.
2. When psychologists make public comments or give public advice through lectures, TV programs, printed materials, the Internet or other media:
(1) Psychologists shall state based on scientific evidence, professional knowledge, training or experience, (2) state based on facts, (3) be consistent with the Code of Ethics, and (4) make statements so that it does not give out the wrong impressions that there is a special relationship between the beneficiaries and the psychologists.
3 Psychologists shall not falsely state
(1) the education, (2) career, (3) qualifications, (4) affiliations with research institutions or associations, (5) the kind of services they can provide (their areas of expertise), (6) the scientific and clinical basis for and the degree of accomplishment of the services they provide, (7) medical expenses, (8) achievements and research results.

 

Article 20 Advertising
Psychologists do not conduct false, deceptive, exaggerated, or other unethical sales, commercial advertising, or soliciting activities.
The following cases are not considered unethical activities, if the psychologists
  (1) disseminate information about their jobs and expertise based on facts, using institution guidebooks, newsletters, media, and Internet
  (2) attempt to contact patients/clients who have already received their treatments with the intention to help them
  (3) seek out subjects in order to provide psychological assessment, counseling and treatment services as part of the community service.

 

 

Chapter 3 Research-related Ethics
 

Article 21 Academic Freedom and Social Responsibilities
Psychologists engaged in research have the fundamental rights to academic freedom and the social obligations and responsibilities that entail them.
  (1) Psychologists should not discriminate against ideology, religion, age, gender, social class and cultural groups, and accept and recognize the academic achievements in their own rights.
  (2) Psychologists shall be open to criticism of their researches, and continue to be skeptical about their knowledge.
  (3) Psychologists shall have attitudes to correct their errors if convincing evidences have been found to refute their claims.
  (4) Psychologists shall review new research issues, system of thoughts and approaches without prejudice.

 

Article 22 of Approval of Institutions
When approval of the institution is required in the implementation of the research, psychologists shall provide accurate information about the research project and get the approval before they conduct research. In addition, the research should be carried out as the approved research proposal.

 

Article 23 Responsibilities for Research Participants
Psychologists shall have the following responsibilities for the research participants.
  (1) Psychologists respect the dignity and personality of research participants, as well as their rights to privacy and self-determination as individuals.
  (2) Psychologist shall take measures to ensure the safety and welfare of study participants that might be exposed to the risk.
  (3) Psychologist shall not give a psychological and physical damage to participants, and when participants show any signs of unexpected painful response, research should be put to a halt immediately.

 

Article 24 Consent for Research Participation
1 The participation in research shall be determined by the free will of the participants. Thus, Psychologists should acquire consent from the participants regarding their participation in research.
When Psychologists acquire consents from the participants, they shall inform them of the followings and provide them the opportunities to ask questions and hear the answers.

  (1) The purpose, expected duration, and procedures of the research
  (2) The rights to participate in the study or quit midway
  (3) The expected consequences when the participants refuse to participate in or withdraw from the study
  (4)Potential risks, dangers, pain and harmful effects that may be expected to have impacts on the willingness to participate
  (5) Benefits that are expected to be achieved by participating in the study
  (6) The limits of confidentiality
  (7) Possible compensations or benefits for participation.
2. Psychologists to perform intervention studies that include experimental treatments shall clearly inform participants of the following from the beginning of the research:
  (1) Nature of the experimental treatment
  (2) Services that will be available or unavailable to the control group
  (3) Methods with which to allocate to the treatment group or the control group
  (4) Treatment natives available in the case where individuals may not want to participate in the study or individuals may want to quit once the research has already begun
  (5) Compensation and monetary rewards for research participation.

 

Article 25 Consent for Voice and Video Recordings in Research
Psychologists shall obtain consent from the participants prior to the recordings, when they need voice or video recordings of the participants for the purpose of data collection. The following cases are exceptions.
(1) The content of the study is to conduct naturalistic observation in a public places, or that the recordings are not expected to be used to harm the individuals or disclose personal identities.
(2) The cases where deception is supposed to included in the research design and the consent for the use the recording should be obtained after the fact.

 

Article 26 Participants who are dependent on researchers including clients/patients, students, etc.
1. When Psychologists carry out research to those who are dependent on them, like their clients/patients, students, etc., they will take measures to eliminate harmful consequences in the case where the dependents refuse to participate or to quit.
2. If participation in the study is a course requirement or extra credit opportunity students should be allowed to have the options to choose native activities.

 

Article 27 Exemptions from Research Consent
Psychologists may exempts from receiving consent from research participants in the following cases:
  (1) The research is judged not to do harm or cause suffering.
       ① Research performed in the education settings with respect to educational practices, curricula, or classroom management methods
       ② Disclosure of the responses of the study participants would not place them at risk of civil or criminal liability or damage their financial status, employment prospects, or reputations, or the research is conducted in the forms of anonymous questionnaire, naturalistic observations or data collection study where confidentiality is protected
       ③ Research on a number of factors related to job or organizational efficiency, performed at the organizational settings and there is no risk to the employment prospects or confidentiality of the participants.
  (2) The research is permitted by law or the institutional rules.

 

Article 28 Compensation for Research Participation
1. Psychologists shall compensate the appropriate amount for participation in research. Psychologists shall not offer improper or excessive financial or other compensations as to practically force people to participate in the research.
2. When professional services are provided as compensation for the participation, psychologists shall provide clear information about the risks, obligations, and limitations, as well as the nature of the services.

 

Article 29 Deceptions in Research
1. Psychologists shall not involve deception in research, except in the cases the deception method can be justified from the standpoint of scientific, educational, and applicable value, and for the cases where there are no other effective native procedures devoid of deception.
2. Psychologists shall be forthcoming about the information that may cause physical pain or severe emotional distress to those who participate in research.
3. Psychologists shall inform participants of the deception included in the experiment as soon as possible, preferably when their research participation is finished, or at least before the data collection is completed, so that participants may have the opportunity to withdraw their experiment data.

 

Article 30 Debriefing Research Participants
1. Psychologists shall provide the research participants with the opportunities to obtain information about the nature, findings and conclusions of the research insofar as they do not damage the scientific values and humane values.
2. Psychologists shall take measures to minimize the damage if they become aware that the research process has brought damages to the participants.

 

Article 31 Humane Care and Use of Animals
Animal experiments in the psychology may be inevitable. However, the psychologists primary duty is to respect life, hence, when conducting research on animal subjects, they should comply with the following standards:
  (1) Think carefully if there are native non-animal testing methods for research and then perform the research on animal subjects only if there is absolutely no other native.
  (2) Animal experiments should be performed only for the purpose of obtaining scientific knowledge. It should be contemplated if the number and species of animals and experimental methods are appropriate for the research.
  (3) Secure, care for, use, and handle the animals in accordance with current laws, regulations, and professional standards.
  (4) Strive to minimize the pain, suffering, and injury of animal subjects.
  (5) Only when native procedure is absolutely impossible, and only when justified by the purpose of scientific, educational, or applicable value, psychologists can use the procedures that expose animals to pain, stress, or deprivation situation.

 

Article 32 Report of Research Results
1. Psychologists shall not manipulate data.
2. When the identities of the research subjects are identifiable from the data, psychologists shall report data after anonymizing them.
3. When psychologists discovered critical errors from the published data, psychologists shall take measures to rectify the errors using appropriate publication means such as correction, cancellation, and errata.

 

Article 33 Plagiarism
Psychologists should not present articles or writings containing research and claims that they did not perform, as if those were their own. Even if the sources are referred several times in the articles or writings, it is still considered plagiarism to present parts of another authors or researchers findings and ideas as their own.

 

Article 34 Publishing Credits
1. Psychologists are only responsible and accredited as an author for the studies they have conducted or they have contributed to.
2. With regard to order of the author or authors in article, psychologists shall accurately reflect authors relative contribution to the study, regardless of the hierarchic position. It is not justifiable for someone to become a co-author or the first author just because s/he possesses certain position. Small contributions to the study and publication can be acknowledged in footnote, introduction or acknowledgment sections as an expression of gratitude.
3. Except in exceptional circumstances, when an article stemmed from a masters thesis or a doctoral dissertation and involves several other co-authors, the relevant student shall be the first author.

 

Article 35 Dual Publication of Research Data
Regardless of domestic or international publishing, Psychologists shall not publish or attempt to publish the previously published material (including material to be published soon or under review) as if it was a new material. If authors try to publish the already published data, they should, at the time of the publication request, ask to the editor of the journal in which they wish to publish if their papers are subject to dual publication.

 

Article 36 Sharing Data for Re-verification of the Research Results
1. After study results are released, other researchers may request the data for the purpose of verifying the results through reanalysis. Insofar as confidentiality of original research participants can be protected and there is no copyright issues banning the release of the data, psychologists shall provide the data.
2. Psychologists who received the data as described in the above item shall use the data just for those specific purposes. If they want to use the data for different purposes, they must obtain prior written consent.

 

Article 37 Review
Psychologists who review the manuscripts or materials submitted for publication, academic presentation, and research proposals shall maintain confidentiality about the content and author of the materials and respect the authors copyright.

 

 

Chapter 4 Ethics Related to Education and Training
 

Article 38 Psychologists as Educator
1. Psychologists shall endeavor to deliver the scientific facts discovered by various psychological researches that have been performed from the past to the present in accurate and easily comprehensible manners.
2. Psychologists shall recognize the relationship between teachers and students, and shall reflect on themselves as to their roles, responsibilities and abilities as teachers.
3. Psychologists shall perceive their influence on students or trainees, and shall endeavor not to do harm their personalities.

 

Article 39 Composition of education contents
When opening courses or providing educational or training programs, psychologist shall compose the contents in a way that could provide the necessary knowledge and experience to the trainees or students. If the educational program is related to acquiring certification, psychologist should design the program in a way that could assist the students to meet the certification qualifications.

 

Article 40 Description of educational contents
1. Psychologists who open course shall provide information about the features of the course, the topics covered in the lectures, standards for grading, etc., in their syllabi. Also, psychologists should run the courses in accordance with the contents of the syllabi.
2. Psychologists who provide education and training programs shall specify the content of the program, purpose of training, participation fees, and qualifications (e.g. attendance, test, evaluation, etc.) for program completion certificate in the program guideline.

 

Article 41 Precise delivery of knowledge
Psychologists shall deliver knowledge based on scientific proofs in an objective, accurate, and also easily comprehensible manner. When Psychologists want to convey their personal opinion, they should indicate that it is a personal opinion.

 

Article 42 Performance Evaluations for Students and Trainees
1. When psychologists evaluate the performance of the students who take their courses and trainees who are instructed by their supervision, they shall evaluate them timely in accordance with fair standards and provide feedback about the evaluation. Information about the performance evaluation criteria should be given to students or trainees at the beginning of the course or supervision.
2. When evaluating students and trainees, psychologist should evaluate actual performance against the individual criteria required by the program in accordance with evaluation standards.

 

Article 43 Mandating individual Therapy and Group Therapy
1. Psychologists shall try not to fall into the multiple relationships that could be risk factors to the performance of their tasks and do harm to other people. Therefore, in the case where a professor evaluates or have the potential to evaluate the academic performance of the student, s/he shall not conduct direct therapy to the student (Refer to Article 14, Multiple Relationships).
2. If individual therapy or group therapy is a required course of training program or academic curriculum, psychologists shall allow students to receive therapy from other specialists who are not directly related to the program in order to avoid multiple relationships. However, an exception could be made for group therapy or counseling that is conducted for strict educational purposes and does not charge additional costs other than the tuition.

 

Article 44 Sexual Relations with Students and Trainees
Psychologists shall not engage in sexual intimacies with the students in the same department or institute, or trainees in the same training center, or those over whom the psychologists have or likely to have authority to conduct performance evaluations. (Article 14 Multiple Relationships)

 

Article 45 Requesting Disclosure of Personal Information to Students and Trainees
Psychologists shall not request the disclosure of personal information in either oral or written form to the students or trainees under their supervision in class or training program, whether it be sexual history, history of abuse or neglect, experience of psychological treatment and relationship with their parents, colleagues, spouse, or significant others. However, the followings are exceptions. (Refer to Article 17, Confidentiality and Disclosure.)
  (1) The requirements are set forth in the program applications.
  (2) The students personal problems interfere with the students own training activities and professional activities, and the student is considered to be a threat to the his/her own and to others, and it is judged that such personal information is required to help the student through necessary evaluation.

 

Article 46 Confidentiality of Personal Information of Students and Trainees
Personal information of students or trainees that psychologists have learned in the course of class or program shall be kept confidential. (Refer to Article 17, Confidentiality and Disclosure.)

 

 

Chapter 5 Assessment-related Ethics
 

Article 47 Basis of Assessments
1. When describing opinions in letters of recommendation, reports, diagnostic statements and assessments including legal testimonies, psychologists should base their opinions on objective information or techniques that could support and prove the validity of their statements.
2. When stating opinions about the psychological characteristics of the individuals, psychologists should undergo a thorough examination process to support their statements. In spite of such efforts, if the examination is proven impractical, psychologists shall document the process and results of their efforts, state that the insufficient information may affect the reliability and validity of their own views, limit the nature and extent of the conclusions or recommendations.
3. In the case of reviewing data, providing consultation or supervision while individual examinations are not guaranteed, psychologists shall indicate that their opinions are not based on individual examination and present the source information with which to support their views.

 

Article 48 Use of Assessments
1. Psychologists shall implement, adapt, score, interpret and use testing tools, interviews, and assessment techniques according to individual purposes.
2. Psychologists shall use assessment tools of which the validity and reliability have been proven. If this is not the case, they shall describe the advantages and limitations of the test results and interpretation.
3. Psychologist shall be objective, academically-grounded, sensitive, and conscientious in filling out and using the assessments.

 

Article 49 Development of Tests and Assessment Techniques
Psychologists who develop tests and other assessment techniques should use appropriate psychometric procedures for standardization, validation, and reduction and removal of polarization.

 

Article 50 Consent for the Assessments
1. The consent for assessment shall be obtained from the client in order to carry out evaluation and diagnosis. When psychologists ask for the assessment consent, they should inform about the nature and purpose of the evaluation, costs, and limits of confidentiality. In the following cases, however, the consent is not required.
  (1) Examination delegated by law
  (2) Examination is conducted as the routine educational, institutional, or organizational activities (e.g. job application).
2. Even to Individuals who may not have the capacity to consent, and to the persons whose examinations have been delegated by law, the nature and purpose of evaluation should still be informed.
3. Psychologists to use automated interpretation service which interprets the results of the examination shall obtain consent from clients/patients on the use of the automated interpreter. Psychologists shall also secure confidentiality of test results and describe the limitations of the data collected from recommendation letters, reports, and diagnostic and evaluative statements including the legal testimony.

 

Article 51 Interpretation of Assessment Results
1. When interpreting assessment results, psychologists consider the various test factors, which can reduce the accuracy of the interpretation, for example, the test-taking abilities or the linguistic and cultural differences of the examinees, and the circumstances that may affect the examinations.
2. The interpretation of the assessment results should be comprehensible to clients/patients in terms of its contents.

 

Article 52 Evaluation by Unqualified Persons
Psychologists should not allow unqualified persons to use psychological assessment techniques. Using them for the purpose of training under appropriate supervision can be made exceptions. However, they should be cautious in the following aspects. Assessments techniques for trainees shall be limited depending on their education, training, and experience, and psychologists must continuously supervise trainees in order for them to perform their tasks competently.

 

Article 53 Unused Tests and Old Test Results
1. Psychologists shall not make assessments, intervention decisions and intervention recommendations using the test results that have elapsed a long period of time.
2. Psychologists shall not make assessments, intervention decisions and intervention recommendations based on old tests or test measures that are not currently in use or are not useful for the current purposes.

 

Article 54 Test Scoring and Interpretation Services
1. Psychologists who provide testing or scoring services to other psychologists shall accurately describe procedures, i.e. the purpose, norms, validity, reliability, and the application, and the qualifications that can be applied.
2. Psychologist should select scoring and interpretation services on the basis of the evidence for the validity of the program and procedures.
3. In the case where psychologists conduct, testing, scoring, interpretation themselves, or even when they use automated or other services, they shall still be held accountable for the proper application, interpretation, and use of assessment tools.

 

Article 55 Explanation of Assessment Results
In regard to scoring and interpreting tests, psychologists must explain the test results to the individuals or the representatives of the group who received the tests. However, depending on the nature of the relationships, there are cases where test results do not necessarily have to be explained (i.e. organizational consulting, pre-employment or security screening, assessments made for court use, etc.). These facts shall be clearly notified to the individuals who are subject to the assessments in advance.

 

Article 56 View of Assessments and Examination Report
1. When client and examinee of the assessments or examinations are not identical, the examinee can view the assessment results upon clients consent.
2. Insofar as it is not judged harmful to the examinee health to view the examination reports, psychologists shall help the examinees view the reports upon their request.
3. If there is any case where assessment results should not be viewed, this fact should be notified to the examinees in advance.

 

Article 57 Transfer of Examination Data
When clients/patients are referred to other service institutes, psychologists can provide the test data to other professionals set forth in the related institute that clients/patients will be referred to. However, the test data may not be transferred for the purpose of protecting the clients/patients from misuse or misunderstanding of the test data. Test data here refers to the raw score and a scaled score in the test data, client/patients response to test questions or stimuli, and statements and behaviors of the client/patient during the test.

 

 

Chapter 6 Treatment-related Ethics

 

Article 58 Explanation of and Consent for Treatment Procedures
1 Psychologists shall explain to the clients/patients the nature of the treatment and therapeutic procedures to obtain their consent. At this point, they must also inform clients/patients of the medical expenses, the limits of confidentiality and involvement of the third parties.
2 If there are risk factors, psychologists shall explain the risks and other native treatment methods.
3 In addition, psychologists should describe the treatment to the clients/patients in a manner and language that is suitable for the their ability and intelligence and should obtain their consents for treatment.
4 Psychologists should consider the preferences and best interests of clients/patients.

 

Article 59 Group Therapy
In the case of group therapy services, psychologists shall explain the roles and responsibilities of all parties and the limits of confidentiality when they begin the treatment.

 

Article 60 Sexual Intimacies with clients/patients
1. Psychologists shall not engage in sexual intimacies with any clients/patients with whom they are involved in therapeutic relationships.
2. Psychologists shall not engage in sexual intimacies with their clients/patients guardians, relatives, or significant others.
3. Psychologists shall not accept as clients/patients those whom they were sexually involved in the past.
4. Psychologists shall not engage in sexual intimacies with the patients/clients who were treated by them, for the duration of minimum three years after the termination of treatments. However, even after theree years, psychologists shall not engage in sexual intimacies with any of their former clients/patients , if it can be avoided.

 

Article 61 Discontinuation of Treatment
Preparing for the cases where psychological services are discontinued due to clients/patients illness, death, state of incommunicado, transfer, resignation, move or financial difficulties, psychologists shall endeavor to take appropriate actions for the clients/patients considering their welfare and having their best interest at heart and plan for future services within the legal extent.

 

Article 62 Termination of Treatment
1. Psychologists shall terminate treatment of clients/patients if psychological services are no longer needed, or if continued services do not help, but rather harm clients/patients health.
2. Psychologists may terminate treatment if they are threatened or put at risk by their clients/patients or by third parties that are related to the clients/patients.

 

Article 63 Provision of Services to Those Receiving Services from Other Institutes
When deciding whether to provide services to those who are receiving mental health services elsewhere, psychologists should contemplate treatment issues and the welfare of the clients/patients. In order to minimize the risk of confusion and conflict with respect to these issues, psychologists shall carefully address these therapeutic matters by discussing them with the clients/patients or persons who have been granted legal authority on behalf of the clients/patients. If possible, psychologists may seek advice from other service providers in the institutes that the clients/patients came from and address the issues with caution and sensitivity.

 

Article 64 Records of the Treatment
1. Psychologists shall retain records relating to psychological services for at least ten years.
2. Psychologist, may transfer treatment records or a summary of the records to a different psychologist upon clients/patients consent for further treatment..
3. When psychologists retire or quit their practice, they may eliminate all retained records considering the minimum retention period of the records. Records can be transferred to the psychologists who will replace them only upon the clients/ patients consent.
4. At the time of the termination of treatment, psychologists may allow clients/patients to view their records insofar as the psychologists rights are not damaged.

 

Article 65 Costs of Treatment
1. Psychologists and clients/patients shall discuss and agree on the issues regarding the treatment costs as soon as possible.
2. Psychologists shall not provide false statements in regard to the treatment costs.
3. If the limits of the services are expected due to financial limitations, psychologists shall discuss this issue with the clients/patients as soon as possible.
4. In the case where the clients did not make the agreed payments and psychologists attempt to use legal means to receive the payments, psychologists shall give a notice to the clients so that they may be given the opportunities to pay as soon as possible.

 

Note:
This Korean Psychological Association Code of Ethics referred to the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct of the American Psychological Association and Code of Ethics of the German Psychological Society and Psychologist Association.


Enacted in August 2003 (Amended August 2004)

 

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