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Research Integrity Review

 

Korean Psychological Association, Sanction and Ethics Committee

 

Research Integrity Review

- Introduction

[According to the definition of research misconduct described in Article 2 Research Integrity Review Operations Bylaws, research misconduct indicates major fraud (fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, and dual-publication) and improper conduct that were carried out in research proposals, performance of research, reporting and presentation of the study. In particular, Item 1 states in regard to dual-publication that "in the case where an article that was already published in an academic journal, an academic conference, or a symposium is published in a different journal, it is not considered as dual publication upon consent of the previous academic journal. However, in this case, authors must cite the original article."]

 

- Article 1 Pledge of Code of Ethics

The Code of Ethics must be pledged to join as a member in the Korean Psychological Association. Those who were already members at the time when this Code of Ethics took effect are deemed to have pledged to this Code of Ethics.

 

- Article 2 (Definitions of research misconduct)

Research misconduct indicates major fraud (fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, and dual publication) and improper conduct that were carried out in research proposals, performance of research, reporting and presentation of the study.
1. Major misconducts
Major misconduct includes fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, and dual publication.
  1) "Fabrication" means to false data or research findings that do not exist.
  2) "Falsification" means to distort research content or results by artificial manipulation of research material, facility, and procedure as well as arbitrary ation and deletion of data
  3) "Plagiarism" is to use results of other studies that were already published or presented, in whole or in part, without quoting or through transformation into other form. This applies to the case where different languages are used.
     (1) It is a plagiarism to present or publish whole or part of core concept of other published articles as the authors own concept without citing the articles. This is true to the cases of different languages, sentences and expressions.
     (2) In general, if authors use more than two sentences from other article continuously without citation, it is a plagiarism. This applies to the case where different languages are used.
     (3) Authors shall use quotation mark on the sentence that was borrowed from others existing papers. But this may vary with academic journals.
     (4) In case of the other existing articles whose results, ideas, facts, equations, and other information were published as general knowledge in textbooks or public publications, those results can be used without citation.
  4) Dual Publication Regardless of domestic or international publishing, psychologists shall not publish or attempt to publish previously published material (including material to be published soon or under review) as if it was a new material. If authors try to publish the data that was already published, they should, at the time of the publication request, ask the editor of the journal in which they wish to publish, if their papers are subject to dual publication.
     (1) If a researcher publishes his/her identical research finding in different journals without citing it, this is considered dual publication, which is, a major misconduct. However, manuscripts submitted as masters theses or doctoral dissertations are allowed to be published to academic journal as an exception.
     (2) In the case of combining academic journal articles to publish a book, it is not considered to be dual publication. But in this case, researchers shall ensure that the source and the announcement of the results which were already published be cited faithfully.
     (3) If an article is released in popular books, cultural magazines by reusing the contents the original article published in academic journals for a general audience, it is not considered dual publication. In this case, however, authors shall specify the original source.
     (4) Researchers are permitted, to some extent, to publish in a short epistolary form (letter, brief communication, etc.). After publishing a short epistle, researcher may additionally publish a full-length article, research data, interpretation or detailed information of the research process without being accused of dual publication.
     (5) If some articles or books that have already been published are published in the form of an anthology or as a special issue of the journal, upon the approval of the original author, such case are not considered to be dual publication
     (6) In the case of introducing a research result to a different readership in a different language, citing the original article is not considered dual publication.
     (7) If the same study is published by translating it into another language, it is considered to be dual publication. However, the journal in a different language recognized the article, and asked for and received pre-approval and consent from the Editor-in-Chief, it may be translated and published, without being accused of dual publication.
     (8) If researchers attempt to publish articles that have already been published in an academic journal or conference or symposium proceedings to other academic journals, upon consent of the the related journal, it may be published without being considered dual publication. However, in this case, researchers shall cite the original article.
2. Improper conduct
Improper conducts are not as serious as to entail direct responsibility like the major misconducts, but they can interfere with the responsible research performance. Specific cases are as follows:
  1) Unfair display of article authors
      -If researchers who have major scientific and technical contribution to an article are excluded from the list of authors or if a researcher is added to the list as an expression of gratitude or respect while s/he did not have contribution to an article or if a position of author or first author is offered to a person just because s/he is in higher level position-these are considered improper conduct.
  2) Interference with investigation
      - Actions of deliberately interfering with investigation concerning alleged research misconduct of him/herself or someone else.
  3) Misuse of funding and exaggerated publicity of research results
  4) Abetting or forcing misconduct
      -Suggesting, threatening or forcing others to engage in misconduct
  5) Directly citing the research results of major misconduct
      -If researchers cite directly the results of major misconduct which were published in the past, it is considered a n improper conduct. However, the Association should inform its members in advance about the publication or article associated with major misconduct.

 

- Article 3 Publishing credits

1. Psychologists are only responsible and accredited, as an author, for the studies that they conducted or contributed to.
2. Definitions of Terms
  1) A primary author (responsible author) is the main researcher, research group leader (team leader), or laboratory director. Roles of the primary author are to confirm all the data contained in the article, to take responsibility for the validity of the research results, and to ensure the exchange of ideas among the co-authors during the preparation of manuscripts. Primary authors can be the first author, co-author, or corresponding author and induce an agreement among co-authors in regard to determining the order of authors depending on degree of their contribution.
  2) The first author is the researcher whose name comes first in the order of authors. The first authors play an important role in generating data and materials as well as in analyzing results and writing draft manuscript.Primary author may be the first author.
  3) A corresponding author, who is at times referred to as a contributing author,submits manuscript for publication to academic journals. Corresponding authors are in charge of communication with reviewers and should present their contact information in the footnote section on the first page of the manuscript. With an agreement among authors, primary author, first author, or co-author(s) can be the corresponding author. If an article is based on a students masters thesis or dissertation, either the student or the academic advisor can be the corresponding author.
  4) If the corresponding author is not the primary author, contact information of the primary author also needs to be indicated in the footnote section on the first page of the manuscript.
  5) Co-author is someone who discussed important research information and contributedto the attainment of conclusion in the process of the research planning, establishment of the concept, research ution, research results analysis and article writing.
3. When somebody is listed on a publication as an author, it is limited to the occasion in which s/he made academic and professional contribution. Small contribution can be acknowledged in footnote, introduction, or acknowledgement section as an expression of gratitude.
4. The meaning of academic and professional contribution is to write manuscript or to make significant contribution to the study. Significant contribution includes establishment of hypothesis and research question, design of experiment, design and conduct of statistical analysis, and writing major part of manuscript including result interpretation.
5. Except in exceptional circumstances, when an article stemmed from a masters thesis or a doctoral dissertation and involves several other co-authors, the relevant student shall be the first author. However, if the thesis or dissertation went through significant revision or were largely complemented with additional experiment data, and should other exceptional circumstances exist, the student is not necessarily the first author.
6. When an abridged version or part of thesis or dissertation is published, it should be stated in the footnote of the first page of the article.

 

- Article 4 (Definitions for procedure)

1. "Informant" means any person who notifies the facts or evidence of observed misconduct to Sanctions and Ethics Committee.
2. "Examinee" means a subject of investigation, which is conducted by Sanctions and Ethics Committee, due to perceptions by informant or the Committee. It also refers to someone who becomes a subject of investigation by being suspected of involvement in research misconduct during the implementation of investigation.
3. "Preliminary investigation" means a required procedure to evaluate whether Sanctions and Ethics Committee should investigate the charge of research misconduct or not.
4. "Full investigation" means a procedure to examine if the charge of research misconduct is true.
5. "Judgment" means to complete the investigation and notify the informant and the examinee about Committees measures to investigation results in written documents.

 

- Article 5 (Scope of Application)

The bylaws shall be applied to publications released by the Korean Psychological Association members.
However, the bylaws shall be limited to publications released after they took effect.

 

- Article 6 (Application Procedures)

1. Within fifteen days after receiving information of or perceiving the alleged misconduct by informant or the Sanctions and Ethics Committee, Chairman of the Sanctions and Ethics Committee shall form Research Integrity Preliminary Investigation Committee (hereafter, "Preliminary Investigation Committee") for preliminary investigation.
2. When the preliminary investigation warrants the full investigation, within ten days, Chairman of the Sanctions and Ethics Committee shall form Research Integrity Full Investigation Committee (hereafter, "Full Investigation Committee")
3. After receiving full investigation completion report from the Full Investigation Committee, Sanctions and Ethics Committee will decide on the final judgment and necessary measures. And then within one week, Chairman of the Sanctions and Ethics Committee shall notify the decision to relevant party (informant, examinee) and, if necessary, to related agency.
4. From the preliminary investigation to the final judgment, all procedures shall be completed within six months.

 

- Article 7 (Preliminary Investigation Committee)

1. (Composition) The Preliminary Investigation Committee shall be composed of six members, including a chairman, selected by the Sanction and Ethics Committee. The chairman shall be elected among the committee members.
2. (Chairman) Chairman of the Committee, presides over the meetings, and when sh/e cannot perform the duties due to unavoidable reasons, a committee member that is designated by the chairman shall delegate her/her duties.
3. (Meeting)
  1) The chairman shall convene a meeting of the Committee and officiate as chairman.
  2) Meeting makes decision by attendance of a majority or more members and by favor of more than two-thirds of attending members.
  3) Depending on type of agenda, in possible cases, meeting may be substituted with e-mail or written deliberations.
  4) The Committee, when it is deemed necessary, may allow non-members to attend and testify to the case.

 

- Article 8 (Provision and receipt of information concerning research misconduct)

1. Informants can provide tips to the Sanction and Ethics Committee by all possible means including verbal or written statement, phone call, or email. In principle, the informant should reveal his/her real name. However, if the informant chooses to inform anonymously, s/he should provide the research project name or article title, and detailed contents and evidenceof alleged research misconduct in writing or through email.
2. Confidentiality of the informants identity shall be completely protected.
3 If the informant was aware of the fact or could have found out that the information s/he provided were false, s/he will be excluded from the secured protection of confidentiality.

 

- Article 9 (Duration and methods of the preliminary investigatio)

1. Preliminary investigation shall be undertaken within fifteen days from the date the allegations were received or misconduct was perceived andshall be completed within thirty days from the start of the investigation by submitting preliminary investigation report to the Chairman of the Sanction and Ethics Committee.
2. The preliminary investigation will conduct a review of the following matters:
  1) If the informed tip applies to the research misconduct defined by Article 2 of Research Integrity Review Operating Bylaws of the Association.
  2) If the content of informed tip is composed of concrete and clear evidence, thus, warranting the necessity and benefit for the implementation of a full investigation.

 

- Article 10 (Preliminary investigation report)

The preliminary investigation report should include the following information:
1. Specific contents of the allegation
2. Alleged misconduct which is target of the investigation
3. The decision of whether or not a full investigation needs to be conducted and basis for that decision
4. Other relevant evidence

 

- Article 11 (Determination of preliminary investigation)

Detailed reason for the decision to conduct full investigation warranted by the preliminary investigation, shall be informed to informant within ten days from the date of the decision in written form. However, in the case of an anonymous tip, this does not apply.

 

- Article 12 (Implementation of full investigation and its period)

1. Within thirty days after the completion of preliminary investigation, full investigation should be launched and during this period the Full Investigation Committee shall be formed.
2. This investigation should be completed within 60 days from the start of the investigation.
3. If the Full Investigation Committee believes that the investigation cannot be completed within the period referred to in paragraph (2), the Full Investigation Committee may explain the relevant reason to the Sanctions and Ethics Committee and request an extension of the investigation period.
4. The Full Investigation Committee shall complete its mission by submitting a final report to the Chairman of the Sanctions and Ethics Committee.

 

- Article 13 (Composition of the Full Investigation Committee)

1. The Full Investigation Committee shall be composed of six or more members by Sanctions and Ethics Committee in cooperation with the Editorial Committee or the relevant Sub-Institutes of the Korean Psychological Association.
2. The Full Investigation Committee should include at least three professionals with expertise and experience in the field of relevant research.
3. The chairman shall be elected among the members.
4. A person who has real or apparent conflicts of interest in the full investigation shall not be included in the Full Investigation Committee.

 

- Article 14 (Request for attendance and data submission)

1. The Full Investigation Committee may request attendance of the informant, examinee, and witnesses for necessary statements.
2. The Full Investigation Committee may request for submission of data to examinees.
3. The examinee, who received request for attendance of paragraphs 1 as above and for data submission of paragraphs 2, must respond to the requests.

 

- Article 15 (Confidentiality and protection of the rights of the informant during the preliminary investigation or full investigation)

1. In no case,should the informants statement expose the identity of the informant directly or indirectly. Unless absolutely necessary, the informants name shall not be included in the report for his/her protections.
2. The Full Investigation Committee shall be careful not to infringe the honor or rights of the examinee until the verification concerning research misconduct is completed. If the examinee turns out to be innocent of the charge, the Full Investigation Committee should make efforts to restore the honor or rights of examinee.
3. All relevant items for the full investigation such as allegation, investigation, deliberation, decision, and judgment shall be under confidentiality. All direct and indirect participants of the investigation shall not release any information acquired during the investigation and performance of duties. However, if there is the need to publicize the information for a justifiable reason, data may be disclosed after the decision of the related Committees.

 

- Article 16 (Exclusion, avoidance and evasion during the full investigation)

1. If a Committee member is believed to have real or apparent conflicts of interest in the full investigation, s/he shall be excluded from the investigation.
2. The Full Investigation Committee decides the exclusion in virtue of its authority or upon the request of relevant person.
3. In the case where just investigation becomes questionable by the Full Investigation Committee member investigation, informant and examinee can apply for evasion. However, two or more members cannot be evaded on the same issue.

4. The Full Investigation Committee can evade upon the permission of the chairman when there are reasons of paragraph (1) or paragraph (3).

 

- Article 17 (Ensuring the rights for appeal and defense during the investigation)

The Full Investigation Committee shall secure equal rights and opportunities for statement, appeal and defense of the informants and examinees

 

- Article 18 (Submission of full investigation report)

1. The Full Investigation Committee will write a full investigation report based on the statements, appeal, and defense and submit the report to the chairman of the Sanction and Ethics Committee.
2. The results of the full investigation report shall include the following matters:
  1) Content of allegation
  2) Alleged research misconduct and research materials which were target of Investigation
  3) Examinees role in the related research outcomes and whether the examinees charge is true or not
  4) Relevant evidence and witnesses
  5) The appeal or defense from the informant and examinee to the full investigation, and the results of Committees response
  6) Conclusions to the research misconduct and recommendation for possible judgments or measures.
  7) List of investigators and their signatures.

 

- Article 19 (Judgment and measures)

1. After the Sanction and Ethics Committee Chairman receives the Full Investigation report, and the research misconduct is proven true, the Chairman shall convene within fifteen days the Sanction and Ethics Committee to decide on the judgment and adequate measures.
2. The article that was proven to be guilty to the alleged research misconduct shall be removed from the list of articles in the Journal, and relevant author(s) will be prohibited from contributing articles for one to three years to the Korean Psychological Association and Sub-Institute journals. In addition, they may also receive other consequences including membership deprivation, membership suspension, loss of license (certificate), and suspension of license (certificate).

 

- Article 20 (Storage and disclosure of records)

1. The records related to the preliminary investigation and the full investigation is kept in the Sanction and Ethics Committee, and must be retained for five years after the completion of the investigations.
2. Full investigation report can be revealed to public after the judgment is finalized. However, information regarding the informant, investigator, witness, reference, and advisors can be excluded from the list of information that is expected to be revealed to public, in the case the information may cause harm to those people.

 

- Addendum

Research Integrity Review Operating Bylaws will be implemented from February 25th,2009.

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